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Abstract

One phenomenon inherent in the nature of the plural society of the Indian subcontinent is the co-existence often in narrow space of populations varying greatly at the level of material and intellectual development (Haimendorf 1985). Confrontation and eventual harmonization are the two possible outcomes of such a state of affairs ((Haimendorf 1985). Though such a state of affairs have influenced and affected many distinct groups, main focus can be diverted towards socially, economically and politically powerful groups on one side and autochthonous societies / groups which persisted until recently in an archaic and in many respects primitive life–style on the other ((Haimendorf 1985). This is about 84.32 millions of tribal population of India according to 2001census, which constitute 8.2 percent of the total population. They are generally called Adivasis implying original inhabitants and are believed to be the earliest settlers in Indian peninsula. Out of such total tribal population, nearly 80 percent are found in central India, 12 percent in North Eastern States and the remaining in Southern India(Verma 1990). The recent studies under “people of India projects” have identified 636 communities among Scheduled Tribes(Singh 1993). From isolated and primitive bands like jarwas, Shompens of Andaman and Nicobar Islands the accultured Bhils, Parajs, Gonds, Chenchus and Koyas which are encysted in multi ethnic milieu, the country presents a colorful mosaic of tribal Life(L. P. Vidyarthi et. al, 1982). We usually find similar features among tribes such as: They live in relative isolation in hills and forests. Their sense of history is shallow and mixed with mythology. They have a very low level of socio economic development. In terms of their cultural ethos, language, customs, institutions, and beliefs they stand out from other sections of the society. As Adivasis, the triblas claim to be original inhabitants of India(L. P. Vidyarthi et. al, 1982).Yet for centuries they have been treated as second class citizens. They have remained the poorest of the poor, illiterate, ignorant and cut off from modern economic activity. During the British regime, tribes were totally neglected and were exploited, by then officials and it resulted in a number of revolts against the foreign rule. Many of the tribals sacrificed their lives in the freedom struggle and exemplified as martyrs (K. C. Pandey and P. C. Satapathy, 1989). This has given a fillip to the freedom movement. The independent modern India, inspired by high ideals of human dignity, equality and social justice that have been guaranteed by the constitution of India, the government has taken a keen interest in uplifting the tribals from their voews. The government of India has initiated a hoast of area and group specific activities during the Five Year Plans. As a part of Tribal sub-plan approach, the Govt. of India has taken up Modified Area Development Approach (MADA). At present Tribal sub-plan covers 184 Integrated Tribal Development Projects, 256 pockets of Tribal concentration, 8 clusters and 73 projects for primitive tribal groups. It spread over 19 states and union territories covering 5.01 sq. km and 37.2 million tribal population. There are 4.2 million Tribals in the state of Andhra Pradesh and it constitutes 6.15 percent to the total population and it is 7.41 percent of the total tribal population of India as per 2001 census. The scheduled area in the state is 29,683 sq. km and it is spread over in 9 districts including Warangal, which is the area of present study. There are as many as 33 tribes in Andhra Pradesh. Gonds, Koyas, Konda Reddy’s, Nayakapods, Chenchus and Savaras are some of the important tribes. Each tribe has typical problems of its own due to different socio-economic-political, historical, cultural, ethnic and environmental conditions. Depending on these factors these tribes remain at different levels of socio-psychological orientation, political and economic development but most of them are away from the national main stream. Even, we can find striking difference between tribes living in deep forest and those living in plains in their living conditions, nature of activity, mode of cultivation, employment, income levels, customs, social and cultural manifestations. To protect the interest of the Tribals the Government of Andhra Pradesh in accordance with Govt. of India has come up with a number of regulatory acts time to time such as, 1) Andhra Pradesh scheduled areas land transfer regulation act of 1955 2) Andhra Pradesh scheduled areas money lenders regulation act of 1960 3) Andhra Pradesh debt relief regulation act of 1960 4) Andhra Pradesh scheduled areas land transfer regulation act of 1970(Gopal Rao. N, 1978). Along with the above specified regulatory acts, the Government of Andhra Pradesh has established Girijan Co-operative Corporation(GCC), Girijan Development Agency (GDA) and Integrated Tribal Development Agency(ITDA) to support the tribes in their production and marketing activities and in promotion of education, employment and general living levels.

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