recreation economics treats spatial problems of varying dimensionality. Travel cost models, once fashionable but no longer so, take recreation sites as point destinations, ideally, located rationally in relation to population. One-dimensional problems, concerning extent of trails, have received little attention. As a problem of land-use competition, planar extent of site is the most important: unless congestion is negative externality, recreational needs can be met with little allocation of land. Evidence on the existence of congestion problems is mixed, though claims that there is no problem are dismissed by deeper investigation. Tree recerationists within a space is arguably best achieved by allowing free choice of movement: there is no compelling evidence that management reduces negative externalities of congestion. Charging for access may be both more efficient than exclusion, and no less equitable.


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