In areas characterized by wind erosion and shifting sand dunes, shelterbelts can increase crop yields. Groundnut yields in southern India increased with the introduction and maturation of shelterbelts. Decomposition analysis attributed most of the yield increases to the shelterbelts themselves, with a small portion attributed to input use changes. While shelterbelt cost data are scarce, the estimated value of inputs saved due to shelterbelts suggested a net benefit stream that is initially negative but increasing into the indefinite future. Public investments in shelterbelts may be the most effective means of preventing land degradation.