Optimal agricultural distortions are calculated, taking as given distortions in the nonagricultural sector. The calculations use a general equilibrium model and assume that the sole criterion is economic efficiency. For most agricultural commodities, existing distortions should be decreased; for cotton and oil-bearing crops, the existing tariff should be increased. Under these optimal distortions, the USA would become an importer of dairy products, poultry, and eggs. Imports of meat, fruit, and vegetables would increase, as would exports of feed grains. The USA would become a major exporter of food and beverage products.