Agncultural research managers are under increasing pressure to JUStify thetr dec1s10ns 111e empirical analysis of comparative advantage offers considerable potential to provide more precise mformatmn to research resource managers for their dec1s10ns. In this paper, the potential applications of domestic resource cost analysis to issues of research resource allocation are discussed. Three case studies undertaken by CIMMYT economists on issues of wheat research m Mexico, Ecuador, and Thailand are reviewed. TI1e studies suggested ways bywluch the wheat research effort in the countries studied nught be reonented. The approach 1s particularly useful 111 countries where policy effects are large and m cases where potential new crops are being considered but also has many potential apphcatlons in agncultural research resource decisions.