This paper estimates technical efficiency on rice farms, following a translog stochastic production frontier (SPF) approach and compares the relative performance of farm operator households with and without off-farm wages and salaries. We use 2000, 2006 and 2013 USDA data for rice producing states-identifying different performance measures. Previous studies suggest that off-farm work influences economic performance—by “improving” managerial performance. We find that off-farm income generally boosts scale and technical efficiency on smaller, mid-size and larger operations, and is also consistent with higher farm and household returns. We also find that the number of hours worked off-farm by the operator contributes to a higher technical efficiency on larger typologies.