Off-farm earnings account for a substantial and growing share of household income among smallholder farmers in most of Sub-Saharan Africa, but evidence concerning the effects of these earnings on investment in food production remains sparse. Conceptually, some factors may push farm families to send members in search of cash to relieve expenditure constraints or serve to meet consumption needs under duress; other factors pull members of rural households toward the promise of steady, dependable income. Previously published research suggests that the search for off-farm income has a negative impact on farm investments.


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