Food consumption has significant impact on sodium intake, with which overconsumption will result in negative healthy impact on individuals. Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2010 and regression analyses, we examined the effect of consumption of various food groups on the sodium intake of American adults (19 years of age or older) and changes in the impacts of various food consumption on sodium intake over the study period. The impact of respondents’ demographics are also considered. Results demonstrate that per calorie consumption of oils, fruits, fruit juices, fruit products, sugars and sweets, deep-yellow vegetables and beverages and water have no significant impact on individuals’ sodium intake. Milk and milk products and cakes contain less sodium per calorie, while fish, tomatoes, other types of meat products, dark-green vegetables, crackers and cheese contain higher sodium per calorie. The contribution of almost half of the food groups to individuals’ sodium intake remain unchanged over years.