With this paper, we examine the current state of global governance of biofuels and assess the potential regulatory and non-regulatory mechanisms for such governance. We ask two questions: a) what are the current efforts and initiatives towards the global governance of biofuels; and b) which form of global governance is more likely to emerge in the field of bioenergy. We come to the conclusion that institution building through private governance and non-state actor partnerships can offer a viable and effective means of governance. However, the primacy of partnerships and networks in global governance also means a number of pitfalls to avoid, especially with regard to legitimacy and inclusion. Drawing lessons from the fields of forest and marine policy, we close with a number of policy recommendations for better private initiatives and partnerships for global governance of biofuels.