The main aim of the article was an analysis of the significance of imports in the supply of material for the Polish and German agri-food sectors. The results of the analysis point to the fact that foreign trade is an important factor stabilising the development of the food sector in Poland and in Germany. However, in Germany imports are a much stronger stimulator of the development of agriculture and food industry than in Poland. A comparison reveals the desirable direction of changes in Poland, where the role of imports in the supply of materials to agriculture and the food industry should increase. Thanks to this, the imported products and global processes will have a significant influence on further development and modernisation of the Polish agribusiness.