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Abstract

Trade and environmental issues are interrelated, have become part of the negotiating process for free trade agreements, and are included in a substantial number of such agreements since being included in the North American Free Trade Agreement (NATA) and the Marakesh Agreement from Uruguay Round of GATT negotiations. Although the NAFTA agreement contained extensive environmental provisions and institutional mechanisms for their implementation in its environmental side agreement, most of those signed since that time are more modest. Typically they contain provisions for environmental cooperation, pledges to enforce environmental laws and to not to weaken their enforce so as to become environmental havens, and when developing countries are included pledges for technical and/or other assistance. While environmental issues are included in the ongoing Doha Round of the WTO negotiations, most international environmental efforts continue to be handled through a relatively large number of Multilateral Environmental Agreements

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