Food waste has been started to be recognized as an important factor threatening a sustainable food system. However most of the studies in the literature ignore the costs of reducing food waste. In this study we develop a framework to analyse the effects of food waste reduction on the whole economy when associated costs are taken into account in a regional CGE model. Our results suggest that the level of cost is quite important on determining the final impact. Food waste reduction may cause severe loss of competitiveness for agriculture and food production if costs are not taken into account.