The increase of the organic food market has been promoting the interest of farmers in the organic production systems. Agents who adopt this system implement substantial changes in their production methods, by acquiring technical and empirical associated knowledge. Therefore, it is necessary to elaborate studies to evaluate organic agriculture systems in this scenario, comparing it with the conventional production model, focusing on social, economic and environmental aspects. This study aimed the regional diagnostic of the social, economic and environmental aspects of the organic and conventional agricultural systems in the Sussuanha district, located in North Guaraciaba and São Benedito municipalities (Ceará State). Seven farmers that practice organic agriculture were interviewed, as well as 20 conventional producers, characterizing all the social context and changes on life quality along the time. In the organic agricultural system, interactions between farmers and environment carried out the improvement of life quality. On the other hand, in the conventional production system, characterized by the use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers, the interest to obtain maximum production with no concerning with the environment prevails. This situation is a result of the continuous use of pesticides, marketing restrictions and land degradation by lowering the natural fertility of the soil on this type of production system.