Based on a survey on farmers in Finland, this study examined the extent to which farmer co-operatives enjoy social capital within their memberships as they become internationalised. Findings from limited dependent variable regressions suggest that one group of farmers is loyal to the co-operative and opposes its foreign investments. Other groups have lower levels of social capital and switch membership status between multiple co- operatives or opt out of co-operatives. These farmers welcome international investment. Thus, internationalisation of co-operatives seems to affect members’ trust in the co-operative differently and increasing heterogeneity within memberships may give rise to governance problems.


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