Gender division of labor in ruminant livestock production systems varies across regions according to economic, socio-cultural factors. There is a distinct age and sex division of work in pastoral (nomadic and sedentary) systems. Men are in charge of general herd management and selling of livestock. Women carry out dairy-related activities and manage vulnerable animals (calves; small ruminants; sick, injured and pregnant animals). Children undertake most of the routine work such as herding. In the mixed systems both men and women take part in animal husbandry activities such as harvesting and transportation of feed, chaffing of fodder, feeding of animals, milking, cleaning of sheds and sale of milk. Their degrees of involvement in each activity vary from place to place. Processing of milk is solely women’s job. Children of both sexes tether and herd animals. Like in animal husbandry activities, crop cultivation tasks are shared among household members and also vary across regions. Feed scarcity increase work burden of all household members, but more for women and children in many situations. Feed scarcity reduces livestock, crop and non-farm productivity. It reduces availability and access to food, via decreased food supply and incomes and hence reduces food and nutrition security and consequently human welfare.


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