This study examines the relationship between policy, market access, country governance indicators and food production in 41 African countries. Based on a cross-country panel sample, a fixed-random effect models is employed to test the hypothesis that beyond agricultural inputs and macroeconomic reforms other exogenous factors could foster food production. Our findings show that improving food-agricultural inputs enhance production, while conflicts, food aid and geographic location such as landlocked countries negatively affect food production. Exogenous factors influencing production response include rainfall, market access, and education. Both governance and education can indirectly improve food production by enhancing growth, through investment in infrastructures, and human capital.