The current status of the agricultural sector in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union is described, in the context of reforms undertaken during the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market-based one. Sectoral performance is analyzed, focussing especially on general trends in production, and emerging trading patterns. Five critical basic elements of reform are described, and a table is presented rating each country in the study on progress in completing each type of reform. Overall conclusions are presented, indicating that in each basic element of reform, the CEE countries have achieved considerably more success than those of the CIS. The paper concludes with a discussion of prospects for development in the region. ©2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.