Wetlands on private land generate both private and social values. The nature of these values is dependent on the biophysical status of the wetlands. Changes in land management can alter the biophysical status of wetlands and hence the values generated by wetlands. Land managers change management according to the private values they receive from their wetlands. However land management changes also affect social values. Bio-economic modelling of changes to wetland management incorporates the biological and economic impacts at a landscape scale. In turn the bio-economic modelling can be used to determine appropriate incentives at the farm scale to facilitate wetland protection on private land. In this paper we discuss the development of a bio-economic model for two case study areas: the Upper South East of South Australia; and, the Murrumbidgee River floodplain between Wagga Wagga and Hay.