In this paper we examine whether it is possible to create a market for ecosystem services deriving from rural landscape and environmental conservation. First of all to do this we consider the results of some studies we have conducted in recent years about monetary and non-monetary environmental evaluation. These studies help us first to identify some rural landscape features which improve or worsen landscape appearance and secondly, to discover the willingness of beneficiaries to pay for maintaining these landscape and environmental resources. Then, in order to understand whether social benefits can be increased by using market and economic measures for conservation of landscape and environmental resources, we study Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES). PES are economic instruments used to support the conservation and improvement of ecosystem services. We describe PES for landscape (PaLBeS) and discuss the suitability of introducing it in favour of some ecosystem services in Italy.