The development of environment measures in the reformed CAP can be informed by the evaluation of existing policies. We undertook a cost-effectiveness analysis of biodiversity measures in Scotland to determine whether current biodiversity objectives have been achieved. We assessed measures targeting 13 species and 5 habitats under the Scottish Rural Development Programme (SRDP) and similar schemes. Expert interviews were used to determine the extent to which published conservation objectives for species and habitats have been achieved. Effectiveness scores for multiple objectives were then weighted and combined to produce overall effectiveness for each species or habitat. Cost data for relevant SRDP and other scheme measures were apportioned to our study species and habitats. There was a wide variation in cost per unit of effectiveness both across and within species and habitats, e.g. Hazel gloves fungus cost-effectiveness was £3,286 per unit whilst Black grouse ranged between £112k and £4m. These results reflected both levels of funding and effectiveness; also the often wide variation in assessment of effectiveness can be linked to vague objectives and lack of monitoring. We also considered impacts on wider ecosystem services which found that there are often broader benefits from biodiversity measures that should be considered.