In recent years, the Central Document No. 1 has been all about the issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers, and especially the Central Document No. 1 in 2013 highlighted the improvement of quality of the rural labor force to develop modern agriculture. The quality of labor is related to the improvement of production efficiency, and farmers' agricultural production benefits are related to the issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers, ultimately affecting the development process of modern agriculture. On the theoretical basis of human capital, this article carries out empirical analysis, calculates the farmers' agricultural production benefits, and analyzes the specific impact of quality of labor on farmers' agricultural production benefits. Finally, some recommendations are put forth to increase farmers' income.