A Long-term Vision of spatial (regional and territorial) development of Slovakia is an integral part of broader work about A Long-term vision of the Slovak society development (up to year 2030). The scientific authorities prepared this official material as a special product for Slovak government. The main aim of contribution is an attempt for critical assessment of understanding selected aspects of rural development and its position in broader context of spatial development of Slovakia. We describe, analyse, and compare the selected indicators of settlement and population structures in urban and rural municipalities aggregated into eight administrative regions with the aim to show not only the level of interregional, but also the intraregional (urban-rural) disparities. From the rural development point of view is cardinal question the scope of diffusion of growth impulses from towns throughout their zones of influence into rural surrounding. We are trying to highlight the interrelation ship and interdependency between regional and rural socio-economic developments.