The Thai livestock industry has experienced significant change over the last two decades in its cattle/buffalo, pigs and poultry sectors. Increasing human population and income levels, political and technological change in Thailand have meant changes in the traditional roles of livestock within the Thai village economy and have caused a heightened demand amongst Thai consumers for livestock products such as meat and milk. These changing socio-economic conditions in Thailand have seen the poultry sector achieve internationally competitive status, and more recently expanding commercial development of the cattle and pork industries. Technological advances in Thailand however have resulted in substantial decline in buffalo numbers as draught power has become increasingly mechanised. In order for Thailand's livestock sector to meet growing domestic and international demand, it is essential that issues such as disease control in livestock are successfully addressed.