The Benefício de Prestação Continuada (BPC) program is a non‐contributory pension addressed to poor elders over 65 years‐old. This paper evaluates its effects on household composition and on labor market outcomes of the elders and their co‐residing relatives. We could not capture any sign of changes in the household composition due to the program. However we found decreases in the labor force participation of the elders, indicating that the program makes it possible for these poor elders to retire, what would not be possible otherwise. Also there is a drop in labor force participation of co‐residents. However, the effect is heterogeneous and the effect is concentrated for adults over 30 years old, while there is no effect for young adults. When analyzing only rural areas, we observed a decrease in labor participation of elders and co‐residents from 18 to 50 years old receiving BPC. We also observe a decrease in child labor.