Agricultural extension in India has undergone several changes since independence. Still, a large number of smallholder farmers and other vulnerable groups remain unreached by the public extension system. A number of organizational performance issues hinder the effectiveness and efficiency of public extension system. These include inadequate staff numbers, low partnerships, and continued top-down linear focus to extension. This paper has presented a critical review of the current state of agricultural extension reforms in India and based on the field case studies in four states —Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu —has identified policy priorities and strategic options for further refining the on-going reform process and effective implementation of the public agricultural extension system.