With intensification of population aging and rise in elderly dependency ratio, the demand for endowment security becomes higher and higher, particularly in rural areas. Taking Shaanxi Province as an example, the authors selected people older than 65 in 18 natural villages in north Shaanxi, south Shaanxi and Guanzhong. With the aid of survey data and related official statistical data, they made an evaluation of current situation of the rural endowment security in Shaanxi Province. Results indicate that home-based endowment is the major endowment method of rural elderly, but such method is influenced by family’s economic support ability and children’s support willingness, thus facing big demand gap. On the basis of analyzing gap problem, the authors recommended that government should increase financial and policy supports, optimize management and monitoring, actively develop non-government organizations, and promote socialization of rural endowment service.