The key to success and competitive agriculture are the ability of adaptation, dissemination and application of new technologies for faster modernization which requires general education. The application of knowledge must be accompanied by improvement of the educational structure of the population that also has an impact on the modernization of agriculture and intensive rural development (Marinkovic, 2009., Mojic, 2011.). In the process of transition, education has a significant role in the modernization, of agriculture and rural development (Miladinovic, 2011.). The process of rural development and modernization of agriculture in Serbia requires the introduction of modern technologies and skilled labor force. Thus, we need human resources to acquire new knowledge and skills and use them for faster modernization. Based on the Census data and relevant literature we are looking into the education and educational structure of the population of Serbia (by regions, areas and settlements). The results indicate that in the period of transition education structure have been improved. However, there continue to be differences in the educational structure of the population (by gender, age, regions, areas and settlements). The educational structure of the rural population is less favorable compared to urban. The share of the population in rural areas, without any education, through incomplete primary education to primary education, by gender ranges for males from 17.66 to 50.24% and for females from 82.34 to 49.76%.