The efficiency with which farmers use available resources is very important in agricultural production. This study examines the resource use efficiency of cassava-based mixed crop farmers in Ogun and Oyo States, Nigeria. Cross-sectional data were collected from 265 cassava-based farmers (150 in Ogun State and 115 in Oyo State) using a multistage sampling technique. Descriptive statistics, production elasticity from Cobb-Douglas production function and marginal analysis of resource utilization were some of the analytical tools used in the study. The mean farm size cultivated in Ogun State was 2.24ha while in Oyo State, it was 1.59ha. There was under-utilization fertilizer in Ogun State and land cultivated in Oyo State. Producers in the two states are inefficient in their use of resources but there exist enough potential to increase cassava output in the areas. This can be actualized by cropping larger hectares of land, regulated usage of higher quantities of fertilizers and the provision of labour saving devices which would help reduce labour requirements and enhance efficiency.