Agricultural structure adjustment has always been the important factors influencing Xinjiang agricultural internal income growth. On the basis of the planting scale, productivity and price in 2010, the paper measured the contributions made by agricultural structure adjustment to Xinjiang agricultural internal income growth through structural optimization.Linear programming model was established by Lingo software, to optimize the structure of planting, horticulture, animal husbandry in Xinjiang and analyze the internal agricultural income growth potential. After structure optimization, Xinjiang agricultural production value will reach 1231.44 ×10 8 yuan and the farmers' income of production and management will reach 9851 yuan. The greatest potential for Xinjiang agricultural internal income growth was husbandry accounting for 41.33% of the total production value. The next one was horticulture, whose share of the total production value has raised to 17.43% from 10%. Fruit industry and animal husbandry will become the pillars of future income growth. There are still some income growth spaces in Xinjiang internal agriculture though the agricultural structure adjustment. The agricultural production value will increase by 44.32% and farmers' production and management income will increase by 68.83%. That will be one of the most important ways to tap the future potential of agriculture internal income growth.