The absolute and relative decline of the rural population numbers is one of the most evident features of demographic development in Slovakia. The most intensive decline was observed during the period of extensive urbanization (1970—1985). The general political and socio-economic changes after 1989 significantly influenced and slowed-down the emigration processes from rural settlements to urban centres. This development has a deep impact on the basic demographic characteristics of the rural population in the country. The here presented evaluation of demographic changes of rural population in Slovakia accounts also for the national and regional dimension.