The PRONAF (Programa Nacional de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar) creation deﬁnes a unique moment regarding state intervention in Brazilian agriculture. Despite enhancements and covering ampliation this program still show ambiguity related even with its beneﬁted public or its essential objectives. Regarding ofﬁcial rethoric productive orientation is mixed with more general goals like job creation, social inclusion, and territorial development. This paper tries to analyze PRONAF considering recent research carried out in the state of Rio Grande do Sul/Brazil, which was an agreement between IICA (Inter American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture) and Brazilian Government to create an action monitoring system and evaluate their impacts. Final data indicates strong evidences of social differentiation among family farmers.