This study aims to analyze the socioeconomic determinants of children’s individual health state in the countryside of Brazil, using data from PNAD 2008. Probit and ordered probit were used in the analysis. Main results show that elements, such as better health of parents, higher income, higher information levels, access to high quality water, besides governmental policies, such as ProgramaSaúde da Família,are positively related with children’s health. Besides the negative effect of the poor socioeconomic conditions on health in childhood, it is known that worse health in childhood can generate, in the future, new poor socioeconomic conditions forthese children. Thus, this circle could be a mechanism of poverty perpetuation. Therefore, governmental policies which affect children’s health in a positive way can promote favorable resultsfor the population.