The paper examines determinants of household food security among rural households in the Ada Berga district in central Ethiopia. Household calorie acquisition was analyzed to measure the status of household food security. Based on the survey of 196 farm households, the logistic model was estimated. Variables related to experiences in farming activities, off-farm and non-farm incomes, land and livestock holdings, as well as soil and water conservation practices significantly affect household food security. A difference in the use of chemical fertilizer has a positive impact on food security where improved food security was observed as the intensity of fertilizer use increases. Results indicate that development interventions aiming at increased income diversification, improved supply of fertilizer, increasing land and livestock productivity will immensely contribute to the attainment of food security. In general, the results of the study produce the implication that attaining food security in the highlands of Ethiopia requires adoption of mixed strategies and policies.