This study analyzes the patterns of public resource allocation in rice research in Nepal. The resource allocation for rice research was approximated based on the full-time equivalent (FTE) of researcher time spent on rice research. A simple congruence model modified by expected rate of research progress and equity criteria was used to investigate the gap between the actual and normative investment patterns across different types of rice production environments. The results show a substantial underinvestment in rice research in general but more so in rainfed areas and in the Terai agroecological zone. The use of modifiers amplified the extent of underinvestment in rainfed environments. The options for addressing these imbalances and the overall implications for resource allocation for rice research in Nepal are discussed.