The productivity attenuation method is adopted to calculate land potential productivity of counties of Yan’an City and calculate population carrying capacity at current productivity level. Rsults shows that high photosynthetic potential productivity area and high light and temperature potential productivity area are mainly situated in the north, while high climatic potential area and high land potential productivity area are mainly concentrated in the south. From solar radiation, moisture and landform, the attenuation amplitude of land potential productivity in northern counties (districts) is greater than that in southern counties (districts). In the whole city, the population carrying capacity of 9 counties reaches well-off living level, and 1 district still does not reach the level of adequate food and clothing. These results can provide reference for land resource use, agricultural production distribution and population growth control.