Land structure change not only relates to the coordinated development of regional social economic, but also determines the ecological environment security in certain region. Ili river valley was chose as the study area. The scientific and quantitative assessment of land use structure and spatial pattern is significant to the sustainable development of the Ili river valley area. Based on the detailed investigation date of land use from 2002 to 2008, and social and economic statistics of the Ili river valley in eight counties and one city in 2008, the study area's land use structure changes were discussed in three aspects from the land use structure, the degree of land use, to the land use efficiency. The changes of land use structure were analyzed by the use of qualitative and quantitative methods. Factors that influence land use structure changes were analyzed. In the end, suggestions were put forward to optimize the management.