Sorghum is the third cereal crop after rice and wheat in India, mostly grown under marginal and stress-prone areas of Semi-Arid Tropics (SAT). NARS, ICRISAT and private seed companies are the major stakeholders working for sorghum crop improvement in the last five decades (1960-2012). Altogether more than 256 improved cultivars have been notified and made available to farmers during the same time. The current knowledge about spread and impact of sorghum improved crop varieties in the country is incomplete. The present study made an attempt to address these issues with help of primary as well as secondary sources of information. The analysis has concluded that nearly 80 per cent of total sorghum area is under improved cultivars which helped to increase the country productivity levels by 85 per cent during 1960 and 2010. This aptly proves that role of sorghum improved cultivars in sustaining the higher yields.