This research examined the relationship between food insecurity, the National School Lunch Program, and academic achievement in Georgia public schools. A multilevel Poisson regression model was used to examine these relationships. Findings confirm a strong inverse relationship between poverty, as exhibited by participation in the National School Lunch Program, and academic achievement. The strength of the relationship was stronger for fifth grade students than for eighth grade students. Human capital, as measured by percent of population with college degrees, had a positive relationship with academic achievement measures.