The paper presents an evolutionary perspective on how Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation Systems (AKIS) have adapted over time to new challenges and technological paradigm and trajectories. Starting from a conventional science-based approach and the robust empirical evidence supporting it, the analysis highlights the emergence of some system failures and the need for new conceptualization and design of the AKIS. Particularly concentrating on developed countries’ agenda, we then discuss how, along this evolutionary pattern, bioeconomy emerges as the convergence of traditional sectors as a result of these new technological trajectories. Finally, some implications for the EU policies are drawn.


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