While economic growth has lifted more people from poverty than in any prior period, world market shocks of the 1970s and 1980s have caused a massive realignment in country policies, and future growth in population and income are expected to place heavy burdens on world resources. Recently, it has been suggested that a food crisis may be forthcoming as food production per capita has stagnated, risking a reversal of the long-term decline in the real price of food. This paper focuses on food security in this context, and concludes that a rise in the real price of food is likely, but not of a magnitude to create a food crisis. Nevertheless, those already in poverty may be placed at additional risk of nutritional deprivation. Policies for alleviating this possibility are available, but they entail more than just increasing food production.