The authors wish to present economic position of agriculture in Serbia in the period of transition. Agriculture represents the base and starting point of economic development. Authors observe economic position of agriculture through four indicators by which is determined the importance of agriculture within the national economy. Mentioned indicators are: share of agricultural population in total population; share of agricultural population in total active population; share of agriculture in net national product creation; and participation of agriculture in creation of foreign trade balance. Later, authors provide a brief overview of transition process in Serbia, as well as its impact on the economic position of agriculture.