The article presents results of the survey on farmers relations with institutions in Poland. The main purpose of this study is to outline correlation between agricultural holdings income and their relationships with the institutional environment. Findings showed that accessing the European Union by Poland contributed to the intensification of farmers’ relations with institutional surroundings. A considerable and growing participation of the state aid is being recorded in agricultural holdings’ income, mainly in the form of European Union subsidies. The conducted research showed that the level and intensity of the farmers’ relation with the institutions influence income of agricultural farms.