At present, there are many factors limiting large area centralized, rapid development, and moderately large-scale land operation in China. These factors include (i) the existing land utilization system is still at adaptation stage, and it lacks universal agreement of people on large-scale land operation; (ii) farmers’ dependence on land is great; (iii) it is difficult to transfer surplus labor; (iv) there is no positive connection between promotion of moderately large-scale land operation and realization of increase of farmers’ income; (v) it remains to be proved whether large-scale operation can become a stable rural occupation and whether big farming households can grow to professional farmers; (vi) large-scale land operation in rural areas may lead to waste of resources; (vii) the promotion of large-scale land operation may cause other social contradictions.


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