The article presents some of findings of research on less favoured areas in the European Union, with a special focus on Poland. The author conducted three types of studies and analyses. Firstly, the paper presents the conclusion of the farm accountancy data analysis what gives the view of the economic situation of LFA and non-LFA farms in Poland. Secondly, by means of interview questionnaires, the LFA farmers’ attitude to continuing agricultural activity in these areas, which is one of the objectives of the instrument were investigated. Thirdly, the author analysed foreign statistics and literature to compare LFA support in Poland and other EU member states. Basing on the above mentioned research the author tries to answer does the measure supporting less favoured areas support sustainable development of rural areas in Europe.