Increasing temperature and variability in precipitation in the semi-arid regions have reduced crop yields and increased vulnerability of the farmers. This paper has estimated the vulnerability of both farmers and irrigation tanks to rainfall variability in a rain-fed area. It has also looked into the adoption of technologies to cope up with rainfall variability and the determinants of technology adoption in the rain-fed tank irrigated agriculture. Tank performance has been evaluated through adjusted tank performance measure, vulnerability has been estimated through livelihood vulnerability index and technology adoption has been studied through a logit model. The data were collected through multistage sampling technique in two areas with below normal rainfall and above normal rainfall. The study has revealed that tank performance and livelihood vulnerability are marginally higher in below normal rainfall area. The adoption of technologies was significantly influenced by the extension services and land tenure. This implies the need for effective policies for the transfer of climate adaptation technologies in agriculture.