Using manure as a substitute for commercial fertilizer could potentially reduce fertilizer costs and also reduce non-point source pollution. Livestock farmers in Missouri and Iowa were surveyed regarding their manure management practices. Eighty-one percent of turkey farmers versus 5% of beef farmers transferred manure to other farmers. Fifty-one percent of farmers who transferred manure indicated it had been tested. Factors decreasing adoption included higher off-farm incomes, solid versus liquid manure, and more animal units per acre. Factors increasing adoption included distance transferred, a contract for the manure, payment, and thinking that manure testing was profitable.