From subject, object and target subsystems, we analyze the rural human resource development system. The subject system includes government, education and training organizations, society, and rural human resource itself. Different development subject bears different responsibility. Object system includes farmers engaged in farming, farmer workers, rural unemployed people, rural students, rural left-behind people, and other people in rural areas. Different development object has different features. Development target system includes raising quality of rural human resource, keeping reasonable population size, optimizing structure of rural human resource, and improving vitality of rural human resource, etc.