The paper is divided into four broad selections. The first section spells out the major reasons for public action in regard to soil conservation. The second section briefly discusses the current soil conservation investments both public and private. The third section evaluates the current strategies, ranging from cost-sharing to regulation, in terms of economic, political, and administration effectiveness. Finally, the concluding section suggest what we have learned from the evaluation and what needs to be done so that future evaluations will have a firmer analytic basis.