For a long time specialists have been following up with different attention territorial disproportion of European economic development in accordance with different aspects. In the European Union, from the point of view of economic development, the main territorial process is focused on the underdeveloped member states, on the elimination of the macro-regional differences (convergence), and on the regional cooperation. Economic disproportions in the enlarged European Union are more notable than before. Though the joining of the new member states has already started, the disproportion inside these countries has been growing up till now. The aim of this paper is to outline the past and present situation, starting with explanation of reasons and roots of the economic disproportion on the European continent and showing the increase of the territorial disproportion in the enlarged Europe.