This study investigates reasons for adoption of best management practices (BMP), crawfish farmers’ participation in the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP), and economic impacts of BMP adoption using data from a 2008 survey of crawfish producers. Most-cited reasons for BMP adoption are farmers’ perceptions of increases in profit and long-run productivity. Land tenancy, education, double-cropping or crop rotation, and proximity to a stream influence EQIP participation. Perceptions of economic profits depend on the practices used. Participation in EQIP negatively impacts farmers’ perceptions of profitability from adopting BMPs. The results underscore the importance of economic incentives in promoting BMP adoption.